Cov txheej txheem:

Dawb huv runes thiab sau ntawv ntawm cov neeg thaum ub ntawm lub ntiaj teb
Dawb huv runes thiab sau ntawv ntawm cov neeg thaum ub ntawm lub ntiaj teb

Video: Dawb huv runes thiab sau ntawv ntawm cov neeg thaum ub ntawm lub ntiaj teb

Video: Dawb huv runes thiab sau ntawv ntawm cov neeg thaum ub ntawm lub ntiaj teb
Video: Yuav ua li cas peb thiaj muaj kev kaj siab 2023, Cuaj hlis
Anonim

Kuv pib kuv txoj kev kawm tsis yog nrog runes, tab sis nrog cov tsiaj ntawv thaum ub ntawm cov neeg sib txawv, tab sis kuv tau mob siab rau qhov tseeb tias ntau (tag nrho?) Cov tsiaj ntawv Ancient yog heev reminiscent ntawm runes. Thiab hais tias cov runes ntawm txawv (?) Tib neeg kuj xav tsis thoob zoo li ib leeg. Cov feem ntau ancient yog Germanic runes.

Germanic thiab Scandinavian runes

"Futhark yog lub npe dav dav rau cov tsiaj ntawv Germanic thiab Scandinavian runic. Lo lus los ntawm "los ntawm" kev nyeem ntawv thawj 6 tsab ntawv ntawm cov tsiaj ntawv laus runic: f, u, þ, a, r, k. Feem ntau, lo lus no qhia txog cov tsiaj ntawv runic, tsis hais cov neeg siv qhov no lossis qhov kev hloov kho ntawd. Txawm li cas los xij, rau qee yam, cov tsiaj ntawv Germanic runic thaum ub hu ua "senior futark", thiab tus so yog hu ua cov tsiaj ntawv qis." Ib qhov chaw

Nov yog qhov qub Germanic lossis laus dua Futhark zoo li:

Puas yog lawv txawv ntawm runes ntawm Goths, uas yog Slavs?

Piv txwv li, Mavro Orbini sau txog dab tsi:

Ntau lub pob zeb nrog cov ntawv sau keeb kwm Germanic runic tau muaj sia nyob rau hnub no. Ib tug ntawm lawv:

Thaum tshawb nrhiav cov ntaub ntawv hais txog Stonehenge hauv cov peev txheej ntawm ntau pua xyoo dhau los, kuv kuj pom tau hais txog cov ntawv sau. Tab sis nyob ntawd lawv tau hu ua, tsis yog Germanic, tab sis Gothic. Ib qho excerpt los ntawm phau ntawv "Sketches of Historical Architecture: nyob rau hauv cov dluab ntawm ntau yam nto moo vaj tse, antiquities thiab txawv teb chaws cov neeg, los ntawm cov phau ntawv keeb kwm, commemorative npib, ruins, nrog rau qhov sib ntxiv ntawm qhov tseeb piav qhia rau visualization", luam tawm nyob rau hauv 1725:

Lub pob zeb zoo kawg nkaus hauv tebchaws Askiv hu ua Stonehenge, Giant Chorea lossis Dance ntawm Giants.

Nws nyob tsis deb ntawm Sarisburg, ntawm lub tiaj uas pob zeb ntawm qhov siab loj nyob, uas sawv ntsug rau ib leeg thiab nqa lwm lub pob zeb loj los ntawm saum toj no, uas tau muab tso rau hauv daim ntawv ntawm crossbar, tsim ib hom portal.. Cov qauv no tsis yog qhov xav tsis thoob ntawm qhov loj ntawm lub pob zeb zoo li hauv nws cov muaj pes tsawg leeg.

Ua ntej tshaj plaws, kuv pom tias cov no yog cov monuments ntawm ib lub sijhawm uas peb tsis paub dab tsi. Tab sis cov neeg uas yuam kev rau lwm cov monuments tshaj li faus neeg yog ib qho yooj yim rov qab los thaum xav txog cov ntaub ntawv ntxov tshaj plaws ntawm Gothic tombs surrounded los ntawm pob zeb tiers, uas peb pom nyob rau hauv Swedish engravings thiab dluab ntawm tombstones ua los ntawm Dane Worm. Lwm lub voj voog zeb nyob ze Oxford, hu ua Rollright Stones (cov pob zeb raug), lees paub qhov tseeb no. Camden, Tebchaws Askiv"

Tus Dane Ole Worm tau hais ntawm no (1588 -1655) yog tus kws kho mob, sau thiab tus kws tshaj lij. Nov yog nws cov ntawv luam tawm:

Hunnestad- txhais tau tias lub nroog Huns. Thaj, ces cov Goths thiab Huns tsis txawv ntau ntawm ib leeg. Ob leeg thiab lwm tus yog Slavs. Cov ntaub ntawv raug cai hais txog lub qhov ntxa piav los ntawm Ole Worm:

Lub Hunnestad Monument yog ib zaug nyob hauv Hunnestad, Marsvinsholm, sab qaum teb hnub poob ntawm Ystad, Sweden. Nws yog qhov loj tshaj plaws thiab nto moo tshaj plaws ntawm Viking Age monuments hauv Scania thiab Denmark, piv rau Jelling pob zeb xwb. Lub monument raug puas tsuaj nyob rau hauv lub xyoo pua 18th los ntawm Eric Ruut ntawm Marswinsholm, tej zaum nyob rau hauv 1782 thiab 1786, thaum lub vaj tse tau dhau los ua niaj hnub, txawm hais tias lub monument tau muaj sia nyob ntev txaus los sau thiab piav qhia.

Thaum tus neeg muag khoom qub Ole Worm tshuaj xyuas lub monument, nws muaj 8 pob zeb. Tsib ntawm lawv muaj dluab, thiab ob tug kuj muaj runic inscriptions. Nyob rau hauv lub xyoo pua 18th, tag nrho cov pob zeb tau tsiv los yog puas. Txog niaj hnub no, tsuas yog peb lub pob zeb no tseem tshuav, lawv tau nthuav tawm hauv Tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm Kab lis kev cai hauv Lund."

Nov yog ib qho ntawm cov pob zeb uas tseem tshuav:

Thiab lub pob zeb hais ntawm no los ntawm lub nroog Jelling:

Nws yog nyob rau hauv nruab nrab ntawm ib tug complex ntawm mounds, excavated nyob rau hauv txawv sij hawm, thiab lawv tau yuam kev rau lub qhov ntxa ntawm Danish vajntxwv.

Anglo-Saxon lossis Frisian runes

"Anglo-Saxon runes muaj lawv cov keeb kwm hauv Futhark qub, tab sis tom qab ntawd lawv tau siv nyob rau hauv Friesland nyob rau hauv tam sim no qaum teb sab hnub poob lub teb chaws Yelemees, qhov chaw Saxons nyob 400 xyoo ua ntej lawv tsiv teb tsaws chaw thiab nyob rau hauv British Isles. Cov "Anglo-Saxon runes" feem ntau hu ua "Anglo-Frisian runes". Cov lus ntawm Anglo-Saxon inscriptions yuav tsum yog ob qho qub Frisian thiab Old English..

Anglo-Saxon runic inscriptions muaj nyob rau ntawm ntug dej hiav txwv los ntawm niaj hnub no Friesland nyob rau sab qaum teb sab hnub poob ntawm lub teb chaws Yelemees mus rau lub Netherlands, raws li zoo raws li nyob rau hauv England thiab Scotland."

Yuav ua li cas lawv thiaj paub qhov txawv Anglo-Saxon los ntawm Celtic tsis meej rau kuv. Nov yog yam lus Askiv lawv tus kheej sau txog hom lus Celtic:

“Lub sijhawm xyoo pua xyoo BC, Celtic cov lus tau hais thoob plaws hauv Europe thiab Asia Me. Niaj hnub no lawv tsuas txwv rau sab qaum teb sab hnub poob sab hnub poob ntawm Tebchaws Europe thiab ob peb lub zej zog diaspora. Muaj plaub hom lus Celtic: Welsh, Breton, Irish, thiab Scottish Gaelic. Lawv yog cov haiv neeg tsawg hauv lawv lub tebchaws, txawm hais tias kev txhawb nqa kev txhawb nqa txuas ntxiv mus. Welsh yog hom lus hauv Wales, thaum Irish yog hom lus ntawm Ireland thiab European Union. Welch yog tib hom lus Celtic uas tsis suav tias yog kev puas tsuaj los ntawm UNESCO."

Welsh los yog Welsh los ntawm Pantography; muaj cov ntawv luam ntawm txhua tus tsiaj ntawv paub hauv ntiaj teb , luam tawm xyoo 1799:

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Ib qho ntawm cov kev pom nrog runic inscription nyob rau hauv England:

Cov Turkic runes

Runes tau siv tsis tau tsuas yog nyob rau hauv cov teb chaws Europe, tab sis kuj nyob rau hauv Asia:

Khazar thiab Hungarian runes

Cov Khazar runes kuj yog Turkic. Wikipedia sau tias tsis muaj cov ntawv hauv cov lus Khazar tau pom, tab sis kuv pom cov tsiaj ntawv Khazar ntawm ib lub vev xaib hu ua Omniglot - ib qho online encyclopedia tsom rau cov lus thiab kev sau ntawv, nrhiav tau nyob rau hauv 1998 los ntawm linguist Simon Ager. tsis yog txhua yam online encyclopedias tam sim no, tab sis ntau cov tsiaj ntawv qub, suav nrog Khazar:

Raws li ib qho piv txwv ntawm cov ntawv nyeem ntawm cov runes, muaj Achik-Tash inscription:

Achik-Tash yog nyob rau sab qaum teb qhov chaw ntawm lub roob Altai. Hauv ib tsab xov xwm ntawm Khazar runes ntawm Omniglot lub vev xaib, nws tau sau tias cov lus Khazar ntseeg tau tias yog cov xeeb leej xeeb ntxwv ntawm Proto-Rovian tsab ntawv, uas tau siv sab hnub tuaj ntawm Hiav Txwv Aral ntawm 1st thiab 6th centuries AD. Cov pab pawg nyob ntawd, suav nrog Avars, Khazars thiab Ogurs ua ntej lawv tsiv mus rau Carpathian phiab. Thiab lawv tau pib hu ua Hungarians nyob ntawd.

Hungarian runes (Hungarian rovás írás, lus: carved tsab ntawv) yog ib tsab ntawv runic siv los ntawm cov Hungarians mus txog thaum pib ntawm lub xyoo pua 11th, thaum thawj tus vajntxwv Christian Istvan kuv tau qhia cov tsiaj ntawv Latin.

Hungarian runes tsis muaj dab tsi ua nrog Germanic runes, tab sis los ntawm kev sau ntawv Türkic Orkhon thaum ub thiab tsis cuam tshuam nrog Bulgarian runes. Txoj kev xav dav dav hauv kev tshawb fawb Hungarian niaj hnub hais tias Avar steppe runes tuaj yeem yog cov thawj coj ntawm Hungarian runes."

Tib qhov ua piv txwv ntawm Khazar lossis Hungarian runic sau yog daim ntawv sau rau ntawm lub pob zeb ntawm Mihai Vitazu, Cluj (Transylvania, niaj hnub Romania):

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Nws piav qhia:

"Lub pob zeb yog ib lub pob zeb Roman thaum ub, raws li muaj pov thawj los ntawm nplooj ntawv cim, feem ntau siv cov khoom zoo nkauj nyob rau hauv ancient Roman inscriptions, reused nyob rau hauv lub xyoo pua 10th. Alsoszentmihaly, nyob rau hauv ib ncig ntawm lub lig lub xeev ntawm Dacia (nyob rau hauv uas cov Slavs kuj yav tas los nyob - kuv daim ntawv), muaj mus txog rau thaum nruab nrab ntawm lub xyoo pua 3rd. Den qhia tias Hawars (Khazar rebels koom nrog Hungarians nyob rau hauv lub xyoo pua 9) tej zaum nyob rau hauv cheeb tsam no (Transylvania thaum lub sij hawm). Cov ntawv sau no yog sau tsis meej nyob rau hauv cov tsiaj ntawv Khazar runic"

Bulgarian runes

Hais txog cov Bulgarian runes hais nyob rau hauv cov ntawv nyeem. Nov yog qhov lawv saib:

"Bulgarian runes - kev sau ntawv ntawm Proto-Bulgarians (Bulgars, Bulgarians thaum ub), tau siv nyob rau hauv VI-X centuries, rau qee lub sij hawm - nyob rau hauv lub Balkans nyob rau hauv parallel nrog cov tsiaj ntawv Cyrillic. Nyob rau hauv parallel, Proto-Bulgarians nyob rau hauv lub Dub hiav txwv cheeb tsam thiab lub Volga Bulgars siv lub thiaj li hu ua Don-Kuban sau, uas tsis ncaj qha mus rau lub Bulgarian runes."

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East European runes

Cov ntaub ntawv hais txog cov runes yog muab los ntawm cov phau ntawv ntawm Lavxias teb sab historian thiab archaeologist Igor Leonidovich Kyzlasov "Runic sau ntawv ntawm lub Eurasian steppes", 1994. tsab ntawv.

Daim ntawv qhia txog qhov pom runic inscriptions muab nyob rau hauv phau ntawv no:

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I. L. Kyzlasov txheeb xyuas peb pawg monuments ntawm no runic sau: a - Don tsab ntawv, b - Kuban tsab ntawv, c - Don-Kuban tsab ntawv.

Kuv tsis pom qhov txawv ntawm cov tsiaj ntawv no ntau dhau lawm.

Orkhon yog nyob rau hauv Mongolia thiab Talas nyob rau hauv Kyrgyzstan. Kuv kuj tsis pom ntau qhov txawv ntawm cov tsiaj ntawv no.

Slavic runes

Qhov xwm txheej me me (lossis loj?) tshwm sim nrog Slavic runes. Qhov tseeb yog tias kev sau ntawv Slavic suav tias yog kev xav:

Lub pre-Christian kev sau ntawv ntawm cov Slavs (pre-Cyrillic sau) yog ib tug hypothetical sau ntawv (tejzaum nws runic) uas, raws li ib co neeg soj ntsuam, muaj nyob rau hauv lub ancient Slavs ua ntej lawv cov ntseeg Vajtswv thaum lub sij hawm lub hom phiaj ntawm Cyril thiab Methodius thiab cov creation ntawm lub Glagolitic thiab Cyrillic scripts.

Los ntawm nruab nrab ntawm lub xyoo pua 19th mus rau thaum pib ntawm lub xyoo pua 20th, nws tau tshaj tawm ob peb zaug txog kev tshawb pom ntawm cov pov thawj ntawm Slavic sau ntawv, lub hauv paus system ntawm inscriptions (pob zeb los ntawm Mikozhin, mlom ntawm Prillwitz thiab lub thiaj li hu ua Velesova Phau Ntawv). Cov lus xaus no tau txiav txim siab los ntawm kev sib piv nrog kev sau ntawv German, hu ua Slavic runes.

Txawm li cas los xij, kev ywj pheej, tsis muaj kev xav, kev tshawb fawb tshawb fawb tau ua pov thawj tias tag nrho cov kev tshawb pom no yog pom lwm yam tshaj li Slavic keeb kwm, feem ntau ntawm Turkish keeb kwm (lub npe hu ua Turkish rune), lossis cuav (ua rau cov txiaj ntsig lossis vim li cas patriotic).

Txawm li cas los xij, muaj ib pab pawg kws tshawb fawb, feem ntau yog cov neeg Lavxias, suav nrog prof. Valery Chudinov, uas tau ncaim ntawm qhov kev tshawb fawb keeb kwm zoo, nyuaj, hauv lawv lub tswv yim, cov lus nrawm heev txog qhov tsis tseeb ntawm txhua qhov pov thawj ntawm qhov tseeb ntawm kev sau ntawv Slavic.

Txawm li cas los xij, qhov kawg kev rhuav tshem ntawm Slavic runic txoj kev xav tsis tau txiav txim siab tag nrho ntawm Slavic kev sau ntawv. Txawm hais tias tseem tsis tau muaj pov thawj tseem ceeb ntawm nws lub neej, muaj qee qhov pov thawj uas qhia ncaj qha tias Slavs muaj qee yam ntawm cov ntaub ntawv khaws cia. Txawm li cas los xij, nws tsis paub meej tias cov txheej txheem no, yog tias nws muaj nyob rau hauv tag nrho, yog tib yam rau tag nrho Slavic cheeb tsam, lossis seb qee hom kev sau ntawv tsim nyob rau hauv nws tus kheej qhov chaw."

Hauv kuv qhov kev tshawb fawb, kuv tuaj hla qhov tseeb tias thoob plaws hauv Eurasia, nyob rau hauv nws qhov chaw sib txawv, muaj kwv yees li tib lub runes, tab sis lawv raug ntaus nqi rau leej twg, tsis yog Slavs. Piv txwv li, runic inscriptions pom nyob rau hauv ib ncig ntawm Eastern Europe, tus kws kho mob ntawm Philology O. A. Mudrak (dab tsi yog lub npe nthuav) ascribes rau…. Ossetians:

"Daim ntawv qhia ntawm tus kws kho mob ntawm Philology. Sciences OA Mudrak "Language and Texts of the East European Runic", uas nws tau hais nyob rau hauv lub koom haum ntawm Oriental Studies ntawm Lavxias teb sab Academy ntawm Sciences, tau los ua ib qho kev tshwm sim ntawm archaeologists thiab linguists. Daim ntawv tshaj tawm qhia txog kev txiav txim siab thiab kev txhais lus ntawm runic inscriptions ntawm lub monuments pom nyob rau hauv ib ncig ntawm Eastern Europe - los ntawm lub Dnieper thiab lub Caucasus mus rau lub Volga cheeb tsam. Kev nyeem cov ntawv sau no ua rau muaj kev xav tsis thoob txog cov lus ntawm txhua hnub thiab kev sau ntawv ntawm cov neeg nyob hauv thaj chaw no. Qhov kev txiav txim siab tau qhia lawv qhov ze rau Digor version ntawm Proto-Ossetian hom lus thiab tsuas yog ib feem ntawm Nakh hom lus."

Kuv nrhiav tsis tau cov piv txwv ntawm Ossetian runes. Nov yog qhov Wikipedia sau txog Ossetian sau:

“Kev sau ntawv Ossetian yog ib hom lus siv los sau cov lus Ossetian. Thaum lub sijhawm nws nyob, nws tau hloov nws cov duab hauv qab ob peb zaug thiab tau hloov kho ntau zaus. Tam sim no, Ossetian kev sau ntawv ua haujlwm hauv cov tsiaj ntawv Cyrillic.

Muaj tsib theem hauv keeb kwm ntawm Ossetian sau:

ua ntej 1844 - kev sim thaum ntxov hauv kev tsim kev sau ntawv raws li Cyrillic thiab Georgian ntawv;

1844-1923 - cov tsiaj ntawv Sjogren-Miller raws li cov tsiaj ntawv Cyrillic;

1923-1938 - sau raws li cov tsiaj ntawv Latin;

1938-1954 - parallel coexistence ntawm kev sau ntawv raws li Cyrillic thiab Georgian ntawv;

txij li xyoo 1954 - sau raws li cov tsiaj ntawv Cyrillic."

Nws ntseeg hais tias lo lus "rune" txhais tau tias "secret":

"Old Norse thiab Anglo-Saxon khiav, Old Norse runar thiab Old German runa yog txuam nrog Germanic hauv paus ru thiab Gothic runa, lub ntsiab lus" zais cia," thiab Old German runen (niaj hnub raunen), lub ntsiab lus " ntxhi mysteriously." Lub npe no, pom meej, yog vim qhov tseeb tias cov neeg German thaum ub tau ntaus nqi qee qhov mystical zog rau runes."

Rau kuv, qhov no version ntawm lub hauv paus chiv keeb ntawm lub npe ntawm lub runes zoo li illogical, vim hais tias txawm raws li lub official version, lub runic tsab ntawv los ntawm cov tsiaj ntawv Etruscan, uas yog tsis pub leejtwg paub. Tsis tas li ntawd, yog hais tias cov runes yog ib tsab ntawv zais cia, ces qhov twg yog qhov zoo tib yam tsab ntawv? Nws mus lawm. Muaj ob tug dej ntws nyob rau hauv Russia nrog lub npe "Runa". Ib tug Runa yog ib tug tributary ntawm lub Pola, ntws nyob rau hauv lub Novgorod cheeb tsam.

Nyob ntawm ntug dej ntawm tus dej yog lub zos ntawm Velilsky nyob deb nroog kev sib hais haum: Runitsy, Gorshok, Skagorodye, Luchki, Yastrebovshchina, Andreevschina, Sedlovshchina, lub zos ntawm Velily - qhov chaw ntawm kev sib hais haum, Yam, Zarechye, Ovsyanikovo (nruab nrab ntawm Runa thiab lub zos. Pola), Vyoshki.

Qhov thib ob rune tshwm sim hauv cheeb tsam Tver. "Nrog rau txoj kev ntawm tus dej yog qhov chaw nyob ntawm Chaikinsky nyob deb nroog - lub zos ntawm Bitukha, Zaroyevo thiab Runo." Ib qhov chaw

Fleece siv los hu ua ntaub plaub los ntawm ib tug yaj, nrog rau lub tsev kawm ntses:

"RUNO, pl. rune ua. Yaj wool (book poet.). Nyias r. Golden R. || Wool sheared los ntawm ib tug yaj (obsolete). Kaum runes. 2. npl. rune thiab rune. Heap, flock, tsev kawm ntawv (tsuas yog hais txog ntses; cheeb tsam, tshwj xeeb). Tus herring taug kev hauv runes lossis runes."

Thiab tseem Perun ntawm no los tsis? Lub ntsiab lus ntawm lo lus PERUN:

1. Lub npe ntawm Slavic vajtswv ntawm xob quaj

2. yog outdated. kws sau paj lug. xub xub, xob laim, pov tseg los ntawm tus vaj tswv ntawm xob quaj thiab tsov rog

3. Mn. h. yog outdated. kws sau paj lug. cim npe ntawm warriors, sib ntaus sib tua, sib ntaus sib tua suab

Muaj cov runes uas zoo li ob qho tib si xub thiab xob laim. Yog li tsis muaj kev paub tsis meej hauv qhov no? Los yog nrhiav leej twg. Qhov no yog li cas niaj hnub txhais lus ntawm Slavic runes zoo li:

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Lawv kuj hu ua kab thiab txiav. Lub npe no tau hais nyob rau hauv "Tej lus ntawm cov ntawv" los ntawm Chernorizets lub siab tawv:

"Ua ntej, tom qab tag nrho, cov Slavs tsis muaj ntawv, tab sis lawv nyeem los ntawm cov yam ntxwv thiab txiav, lawv twv nrog lawv, ua qias neeg. Thaum lawv ua kev cai raus dej, lawv tau sim sau cov lus Slavic yam tsis muaj lub caij nyoog nyob hauv cov ntawv Loos thiab Greek."

Cov Slavs tsis muaj ntawv, tab sis nyob rau hauv cov lus Slavic muaj lo lus "tsab ntawv" thiab lo lus "tsab ntawv". Thiab cov Slavs yuav tsis hu ib tsab ntawv ib tsab ntawv, tab sis ib tsab ntawv ib tsab ntawv. Xws li, hauv lus Askiv tsab ntawv = tsab ntawv; tus cwj pwm; char.

Tsab ntawv = tsab ntawv; tsab ntawv; lus; daim ntawv pov thawj; erudition, thiab ntau lub ntsiab lus

Cim = koob meej; sau ntawv pom zoo; yam ntxwv; daim duab; tus cwj pwm; duab; hero; ib hom; lub luag haujlwm (hauv kev ua yeeb yam); tus neeg ua yeeb yam; yam ntxwv feature; tshwj xeeb feature; zoo; khoom; tsab ntawv; tsab ntawv; hieroglyph; tus lej; tsiaj ntawv; tsab ntawv; kos npe; tus cwj pwm

Char = niaj hnub; ua smth. charred; hluav taws kub; charred; khoom seem; hluav taws xob; ua haujlwm; hnub ua haujlwm; ib yam dab tsi charred; ua smth. charred; kub; char (ntses); kos npe (abbreviated los ntawm tus cwj pwm); cim; tus lej; tsab ntawv; mus saib xyuas tus poj niam; tu poj niam (abbreviated los ntawm charwoman); rooj zaum; excursion qhib tsheb;

Fabkis tsab ntawv = caractère; lettre with about the same meaning as in English

Italian ntawv = carattere; lettera, lub ntsiab lus zoo sib xws.

Spanish tsab ntawv = caràcter; letra; tipo

Qhov tshwj xeeb yog German. Nyob rau hauv nws, tsab ntawv = tsab ntawv (litera), thiab tsab ntawv = tsab ntawv (schrift, los ntawm kev sau ntawv - schreiben, los ntawm txoj kev nws zoo li Lavxias teb sab: skrebsti (pen).

Ancient non-runic cov tsiaj ntawv

Tab sis kuv yuav rov qab mus rau qhov chaw kuv pib: lub tswv yim ntawm runes raug thawb rau kuv los ntawm cov tsos ntawm cov tsiaj ntawv qub uas tsis yog cov runic sawv daws yuav. Piv txwv li:

Cov tsiaj ntawv ntawd yog hu ua Lugansk vim nws tau pom nyob rau hauv lub nroog…. Tsis txhob ntshai, tsis yog, tsis yog nyob rau hauv Luhansk, tab sis nyob rau hauv Lugano - ib lub nroog nyob rau hauv Switzerland. Nws tseem hu ua lepontic:

« Lepontik yog ib tug ancient alpine Celtic, hais nyob rau thaj tsam ntawm Rhetia thiab Cisalpine Gaul (dab tsi yog tam sim no Northern Ltalis) nruab nrab ntawm 550 thiab 100 BC. Lepontic tau lees paub hauv cov ntawv sau pom hauv thaj av uas nyob hauv Lugano, Switzerland, thiab suav nrog thaj av Lake Como thiab Lake Maggiore Ltalis.

Cov lepontic tau txais thawj zaug los ntawm Gauls nrog kev sib haum xeeb ntawm Gaulish pab pawg sab qaum teb ntawm Po River, thiab tom qab ntawd los ntawm Latins tom qab Roman koom pheej tau txais kev tswj hwm ntawm Cisalpine Gaul thaum kawg ntawm 2nd thiab 1st centuries BC."

Nrhiav cov piv txwv ntawm kev sau ntawv Greek thaum ub tsis yooj yim. Nws tau dhau los ua Mycenaean Linear tsab ntawv. Ib qho ntawm cov pom av nplaum ntsiav tshuaj nrog tsab ntawv no:

Tej zaum tib qho piv txwv ntawm kev sau ntawv Latin thaum ub yog cov ntawv sau no ua rau ntawm phab ntsa ntawm lub kernos (lub nkoj ceramic ntawm lub hom phiaj tsis paub). Rau kev sib piv, muaj Etruscan inscription nyob ib sab ntawm nws. Raws li cov lus hais mus: xav qhov txawv:

Tag nrho cov piv txwv, tshwj tsis yog cov tsiaj ntawv Etruscan, raug coj los ntawm Omniglot qhov chaw hais saum toj no. Kuv tau npaj lawv kwv yees li ntawm qhov kev txiav txim ntawm lawv qhov tshwm sim, raws li tau piav qhia hauv phau ntawv Irish herald thiab antiquarian ntawm Askiv keeb kwm William Betham William Betham (1779-1853) "Etruria-Celtica: Etruscan Literature thiab Studied Antiquities", thiab lwm yam. txog qhov uas kuv yuav qhia rau hauv tsab xov xwm tom ntej no. Thiab tseem hais tias Phoenicians - Etruscans - Celts-Gauls yog ib tus neeg, raws li cov lus piav qhia ntawm cov peev txheej no. Thiab cov nqe lus no tsis yog tsuas yog nyob rau hauv kev sau ntawv, tab sis kuj nyob rau hauv lub hauv paus ntawm mythology (los yog zoo dua los hais lub ntiaj teb saib?), Kab lis kev cai, pom artifacts.

Kuv pom cov ntaub ntawv hais tias cov lus piav qhia ntawm Slavic runes yog thawj zaug muab rau hauv phau ntawv los ntawm Anton Platov "Slavic Runes" 2001.

Saib ntawm nws phau ntawv, kuv ntsia cov kab lus hauv qab no:

Feem ntau ntawm cov 'paj Lavxias teb sab' rune npe tshuav lawv lub hauv paus rau kev ua haujlwm ntawm Ralph Blum, rau lub sijhawm ntev ntawm phau ntawv nrov tshaj plaws ntawm runes hauv Russia (The Book of Runes).

Kuv txiav txim siab mus nrhiav phau ntawv no, tab sis poob nthav tawm mus rau lwm qhov. Typing "Runes" nyob rau hauv kev tshawb fawb, nws muab kuv "Sammlung russischer Geschichte" (Sau ntawv ntawm Lavxias teb sab keeb kwm), sau los ntawm Miller, luam tawm nyob rau hauv 1732-1764, muaj 9 ntim, txhua ntim txog 600-700 nplooj ntawv. Tag nrho cov ntim tuaj yeem pom ntawm lub vev xaib ntawm GPIB lub tsev qiv ntawv hluav taws xob, txawm li cas los xij, tsuas yog hauv German xwb.

Kuv nco qab, thaum tshawb nrhiav Miller cov haujlwm, kuv pom tias tsuas yog ib feem me ntawm lawv tau muab txhais ua lus Lavxias. Raws li cov ntaub ntawv uas txawm li cas los xij tau txhais, nws tau xaus lus tias keeb kwm ntawm Russia tau dag los ntawm Miller. Tab sis pes tsawg tus neeg tau nyeem nws thawj, txog 6,000 nplooj ntawv loj? Cov ntaub ntawv dab tsi txog keeb kwm Lavxias tau khaws cia rau ntawd? Tab sis nyob rau hauv cov ntaub ntawv no, nws tsis yog qhov tseem ceeb, tab sis qhov tseeb hais tias cov kev tshawb fawb cav txuam nrog cov keeb kwm ntawm Lavxias teb sab, thaum officially Lavxias teb sab runes tsis zoo li muaj …

Nyob rau hauv tus tsim ntawm tsab xov xwm, ib daim duab ntawm ib tug nthuav dav ntawm lub pem hauv ntej vaj huam sib luag ntawm Frank lub hleb, ua los ntawm ib tug whalebone nrog runes carved rau nws. suav tias yog qhov tseem ceeb tshaj plaws ntawm Anglo-Saxon runic monuments thaum ntxov, nws tau khaws cia hauv British Tsev khaws puav pheej.

Pom zoo: