Cov kws kho mob TSIS TXAUS SIAB qhov tseeb txog VACCINES - cov ntawv tshaj tawm tshawb fawb txog cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob tiv thaiv kab mob sib kis
Cov kws kho mob TSIS TXAUS SIAB qhov tseeb txog VACCINES - cov ntawv tshaj tawm tshawb fawb txog cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob tiv thaiv kab mob sib kis

Video: Cov kws kho mob TSIS TXAUS SIAB qhov tseeb txog VACCINES - cov ntawv tshaj tawm tshawb fawb txog cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob tiv thaiv kab mob sib kis

Video: Cov kws kho mob TSIS TXAUS SIAB qhov tseeb txog VACCINES - cov ntawv tshaj tawm tshawb fawb txog cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob tiv thaiv kab mob sib kis
Video: Lus Tim Khawv Khixatia | “Paub Txog Vajtswv Lub Hwj Chim thiab Hwj Chim Kav Nyob Hauv Lub Neej” 2023, Cuaj hlis
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Ntau lub tuam txhab thiab lub teb chaws thoob ntiaj teb tab tom tsim tshuaj tiv thaiv tus kabmob coronavirus. Thiab qee tus ntawm lawv twb tau pib tshawb fawb soj ntsuam, hla dhau theem ntawm kev sim tsiaj.

Piv txwv li, raws li Olga KARPOVA, tus thawj coj ntawm Department of Virology, Moscow State University. Lomonosov, cov tshuaj tiv thaiv Lavxias yuav tshwm sim nyob rau hauv ob peb lub hlis thiab yuav muaj txiaj ntsig tiv thaiv peb tus kabmob coronaviruses txaus ntshai tshaj plaws ib zaug: SARS, MERS thiab COVID-19. Raws li tus kws kho mob virologist, nws yuav yog tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob sib kis. Ua li no. Cov kab mob cog ntawm cov luam yeeb mosaic ua lub platform. Qhov no, los ntawm txoj kev, yog thawj tus kab mob pom los ntawm tib neeg. Hauv qhov xwm txheej, nws zoo li tus pas, tab sis virologists ua rau nws kheej kheej los ntawm cov cuab yeej tshwj xeeb cua sov. Qhov tshwm sim yog ib puag ncig nanoparticle nrog qhov loj ntawm 500-600 nanometers, uas adsorbs proteins ntawm tus kabmob coronavirus ntawm nws tus kheej.

Raws li lub hauv paus no, cov proteins uas tsim los ntawm cov txheej txheem genetic engineering tau cog, uas muaj cov kab ke uas yog ib feem ntawm tus kabmob coronaviruses - SARS, MERS, thiab COVID-19, thiab txawm tias cov uas tseem tsis tau tshwm sim lawv tus kheej, tab sis peb paub tias lawv. nyob hauv cov kab mob ntawm cov puav thiab tej zaum yuav muaj ib hnub tawg rau hauv peb lub neej.

Thiab tag nrho cov no suab, ntawm chav kawm, zoo heev, tab sis nyob rau hauv lub scientific zej zog muaj ib lo lus nug seditious heev:

Nws puas yog tias cov tshuaj tiv thaiv ua rau cov kab mob uas nws tau tsim? Txhawm rau teb cov lus nug no, peb yuav tsum paub txog qhov tshwm sim ntawm "antibody-dependent intensification of infection". Qhov tshwm sim ntawm antibody-dependent intensification of infection, (abbreviated as ADE) tau piav qhia los ntawm cov kws tshawb fawb rov qab rau xyoo 1964. Cov kab hauv qab yog qhov yooj yim - thaum muaj cov tshuaj tiv thaiv tshwj xeeb, qee cov kab mob kis tau sai dua.

Tom qab ntawd, nws tau pom tias thaum cov tshuaj tiv thaiv uas tsis cuam tshuam tus kab mob kom txaus khi rau cov kab mob kis, nws ua rau cov kab mob kis tau zoo dua ntawm tes, thiab, vim li ntawd, ua rau muaj kab mob sib kis ntau ntxiv thiab cov kab mob. Tom qab ntawd, qhov tshwm sim no tau pom rau ntau lwm yam kab mob. Txhawm rau ua kom yooj yim ntxiv, qhov tseem ceeb yog qhov no - tom qab txhaj tshuaj tiv thaiv, tus kab mob tuaj yeem loj dua yog tias tsis muaj tshuaj tiv thaiv. Tam sim no cia saib cov piv txwv tshwj xeeb nrog cov txuas tshwj xeeb rau cov ntawv tshawb fawb.

1. Coronaviruses

Cov tsev neeg muaj tus kabmob coronavirus suav nrog 40 tus kabmob, ntawm 7 tus kabmob muaj peev xwm kis tau rau tib neeg. Ntawm xya, plaub tus kab mob (229E, NL63, OC43, HKU1) ua rau mob khaub thuas, thiab muaj lub luag haujlwm rau 10-15% ntawm tus mob khaub thuas. 229E thiab OC43 tau tshawb pom hauv 60s, lwm qhov (NL63) tau pom thawj zaug hauv 2004 hauv Netherlands, thiab kawg (HKU1) hauv 2005 hauv Hong Kong. Tus thib tsib SARS tus mob coronavirus yog lub luag haujlwm rau xyoo 2002 SARS kev kis mob uas tau pib hauv Suav teb, thiab thib rau MERS yog lub luag haujlwm rau Middle East kev ua pa ua pa uas tau pib xyoo 2012 hauv Saudi Arabia. Lub xya tus kab mob SARS-CoV-2 yog lub luag haujlwm rau kev sib kis tam sim no xyoo 2020.

Thiab qhov no yog dab tsi virologists piav qhia hauv cov ntawv tshawb fawb txog lub ntsiab lus no. Thaum pib ntawm kev kis tus kab mob, SARS tus mob coronavirus tsis kis tus kabmob macrophages, cov hlwb tiv thaiv kab mob. Tab sis thaum lub cev tiv thaiv kab mob pib ua cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob tiv thaiv tus kab mob, lawv pab tus kab mob nkag mus rau hauv macrophages, ua rau muaj kab mob hnyav dua. Kev ua haujlwm ntawm cov tshuaj tiv thaiv tus kabmob coronavirus tau pib txij thaum pib muaj tus kabmob SARS.

Hauv kev tshawb fawb xyoo 2006, cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob SARS tau siv rau cov nas me. Tab sis nyob rau hauv cov nas qub uas tau txhaj tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob SARS thiab tom qab ntawd kis tau, qhov tshuaj tiv thaiv ua rau muaj kev tiv thaiv kab mob ntawm lub ntsws. Cov txiaj ntsig tib yam tau txais hauv xyoo 2011 thiab 2012 kev tshawb fawb nrog ntau hom tshuaj tiv thaiv. Kev tiv thaiv kab mob ntawm lub ntsws kuj tau pom nyob rau hauv kev sim tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob hauv ferrets thiab liab. Hauv kev tshawb fawb xyoo 2008, cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob SARS tau ua rau mob ntsws loj heev tom qab kis mob. Hauv xyoo 2004 Canadian txoj kev tshawb fawb, ferrets txhaj tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob SARS tus mob coronavirus thiab tom qab ntawd kis tus kabmob coronavirus tau ua rau mob siab dua (mob siab) piv rau cov ferrets tsis tau txhaj tshuaj.

Tag nrho cov kev xeem tsis ua tiav yog vim qhov tshwm sim ntawm cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob-dependent exacerbation ntawm tus kab mob. Piv txwv li, hauv kev tshawb fawb Suav xyoo 2007, cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob SARS tau ua tau zoo hauv cov tsiaj, tab sis nyob rau hauv tib neeg cov kab mob, cov tshuaj tiv thaiv ua rau muaj kab mob ntawm tes. Cov txiaj ntsig no tau lees paub hauv lwm cov kev tshawb fawb thiab.

Ib daim duab zoo sib xws tau pom nrog MERS tus mob coronavirus hauv kev tshawb fawb 2016. Cov tshuaj tiv thaiv tau ua rau lub ntsws tiv thaiv kab mob hauv cov nas thaum kis tus kabmob coronavirus. Hauv kev tshawb fawb xyoo 2017, cov luav tau txhaj tshuaj tiv thaiv tus kabmob MERS tus kabmob ua rau mob ntsws ntau ntxiv. Thiab thaum tsis muaj kab mob thiab yav dhau los cov luav tsis tau txhaj tshuaj tau hloov nrog cov ntshav ntawm cov tshuaj tiv thaiv kab mob luav, lawv kuj tau ntsib tib yam mob ntsws thaum lawv ntsib tus kab mob.

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